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Full text of "Lumbering, silver mining, agriculture, gold mining, pulp, paper"

fEMISKAMINb 

AND 

ORTHERN ONTARIO 
RAILWAY 



Lumbering 
Silver Mining 
Agriculture 
Gold Mining 
Pulp, Paper 



R*^"^ 





11/ 



ONTARIO GOVERNMENT RAILWAY 



ONTARIO GOVERNMENT RAILWAY 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO 
RAILWAY 

A. J PARR. 
Gen. Freight s Passenger Agent 
North Bav. Ontario 



OPERATED BY COMMISSION 
HON. E. C. DRURY. PREMIER 




EO. W. LEE. Chairman 
. T. MARTIN 



J. I. MCLAREN 
W. H. MAUND, Sec.-Treas. 



DISTANCES 

To some of the Railway Points in Greater Ontario 



TORONTO to Armstrong 865 Miles. 

Blind River 362 " 

Bruce Mines 402 

Chapleau 430 " 

Charlton 373 " 

Chelmsford 272 

Cobalt 330 " 

Cochrane 480 

Coniston 258 

Copper Cliff 263 

Dane 388 

Dryden 1.024 " 

Earlton Jet 356 

Elk Lake 385 " 

Emo 1,123 " 

Englehart 366 

Espanola Station 310 

Foleyet 425 

Fort Frances 1,102 

Fort William 813 " 

Franz 513 

Graham 1.004 " 

Grant 734 " 

Heaslip 361 

Haileybury 335 

1 learst 609 " 

Hunta 491 " 

Iroquois Falls 460 

Jacksonboro 511 

Keewatin 1,110 

Kelso 450 " 

Kenora 1 , 107 

I -atchford 321 



TORONTO to Little Current 344 Miles. 

Macpherson 549 " 

Massey 317 

Matheson 433 

Minaki 1,148 

Monteith 444 

Murillo 826 

Nepigon 743 

North Cobalt 332 

New Liskeard 340 

North Bay 227 

Porquis Jet. 452 

Port Arthur 808 

Rainy River 1,157 

Sault Ste. Marie 443 

Schreiber 679 

Schumacher 482 " 

South Porcupine 479 

Stratton Station 1.138 

Sturgeon Falls 316 " 

Sudbury 260 

Superior Jet 997 

Swastika 392 

Temagami 299 

Thessalon 391 

Thornloe 352 

Timmins 485 

Tomiko 254 

Uno Park 346 " 

Wabigoon 1. 010 " 

Warren 270 " 

Webbwood 307 " 

Widdifield 250 '• 




TEMISKAMING AND 
NORTHERN ONTARIO 
= RAILWAY —a 



I. Temacami Station. 2. Lady Evelyn Lake. 



NORTHERN ONTARIO 

ITS VASTNESS AND DIVERSITY 



l_I UNDREDS of miles nearer than the prairie to the emigrant 
from the British Isles and just at the back door, so to speak, 
of Southern Ontario is a section of Canada that is now beginning 
to come to its own. That section is Northern Ontario. To 
some it will be incredible that it is about double the size of Mani- 
toba and about 20,000 square miles larger than the British Isles, 
or 140,000 square miles in extent. Magnificent as magnitude is, 
it would appeal merely to the imagination if it were but barren 
land like the great desert of Sahara. It is by no means barren and 
forbidding. On the contrary it is a land of far-stretching forests 



and innumerable lakes and streams, alluring to the lumberman, 
the fisherman, the tourist and the man of sport; a land of mineral 
wealth especially nickel, silver and gold, that has arrested the eye 
of the financial world, and, above all, a land whose agricultural 
fertility over an immense area is unsurpassed. 

Northern Ontario is already skirted on its south and traversed 
through its territory by nearly 3,000 miles of steam railways, and 
construction is rapidly progressing and will progress until the 
railways form a convenient network as in the older portion of the 
province to the south. 



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TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 




I . Lady Evelyn Falls 

2. On The Montreal River 

3. Mattawapika Falls 



' ^ O the outside world Greater Ontario, or Northern Ontario as it 
was named by those who did not comprehend its greatness, is a 
land of mining development, but that is not all. Untold wealth is 
being hewn from the bowels of the earth, and will continue to be 
for a long time to come. The end of the mineral development of 
this vast hinterland is not yet. It may not arrive during the life- 
time of the present or next generation. What of agriculture^ The 
greatness of Greater Ontario really lies in the potentialities of its 
soil, which providing it is properly tilled and cared for, will never 
lose its wonderful wealth-producing properties. 

Nothing but a vague conception of what Greater Ontario 
means and will mean to humanity can be given in a series of short 
articles on development and progress. Its wonders never cease. 
Its possibilities are inestimable, because its mines and its farms 
produce surprises every year. It is the hunter's paradise, the poor 
man's hope. It is the mining man's El Dorado, the summer home 
of the continent. 

Then, Greater Ontario has Pulpwood Areas that are practical- 
ly illimitable. No drought can visit it. It has an abundance of 
water for beast and mankind, and for power. Some of the biggest 
pulpwood mills, and centers are to be found in the north. Besides 
feeding the paper and allied industries, they feed the farmer and 
his children during the process of clearing the land. The pulp- 
wood buys his home, his farm implements and his stock. It gives 
him creature comforts lrom the outset, and inspires him in the 
will to do, and keeps his pioneering enthusiasm undimmed. 
Nature was never so bounteous. Never did happier communities 
inhabit a land than those in Greater Ontario. There is no ful- 
someness in this. Those who disbelieve can prove for themselves. 
Greater Ontario's greatest critics, if it has any, are those who 
never go there, but talk of the "dreary winters up north". 

The area is so wide that it could contain hundreds of thou- 
sands, where there are thousands. It needs people, but they must 
be a type that can stand the toil of the pioneering stage Nothing 
worth while is gained without toil. 

"This is the law of the Yukon, 

And ever she makes it plain; 
Send not your foolish and feeble. 

Send me your strong and sane; 
Send me the best of your breeding. 

Lend me your chosen ones; 
Them will I take to my bosom, 

Them will I call my sons." 

Thus wrote Robert Service of the Yukon. No words were 
ever more applicable to Greater Ontario. 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 



3 




Population 
11,000 

O Miles 



J^HE Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway, owned by 
the Province and managed by a Commission, operates from 
North Bay to Cochrane, Ontario, a distance of 253 miles — 
Branch Lines 77 miles — Total 330 miles. 

By the close of 1923 the main line will be extended another 
70 miles north toward James Bay. 
North Bay The Capital of Nipissing District. 

Less than a generation ago North Bay was little 
more than a small clearing on the edge of Lake 
Nipissing. Today it is an important railway and 
industrial centre. It is served by four railways 
that radiate north, south, east and west: — The Temiskaming and 
Northern Ontario Railway (the Southern Terminus), Grand 
Trunk Railway System, Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian 
National Railways. 

Principal industries: — sawmills, planing mills, machine shops, 
car repair shops, brick making plant and two ice cream factories. 
This is an important tourist centre. From here, during the sum- 
mer months, boats run daily to the French River District, one of 
the most desirable vacation points in Northern Ontario. 

North Bay has many fine schools, churches, banks and hotels. 
Travelling over the line of the Temiskaming and Northern 
Ontario Railway from North Bay, the route lies through a maze 
of lake-land, river, pine forest, mineral range and rich agricultural 
country. 

At Trout Mills you gain your first sight of a typical 
northern lakelet. The white splashes on the great 
sea of green forest background show the sites of 
the summer homes which dot the further side of 
the lake. Past Feronia the track falls into the 
valley of the North River. The lines of steel cross 
and recross the tortuous torrent, seeking to find 
the path of least resistance to the summit of this 
mountain defile. 

On past Widdifield to the land of the red deer. 
Nearby is Otter Lake, full of the most tempting 
trout, and all about is the paradise of the sports- 
man. Passing Mulock on the left hand, we catch 
glimpses of the corduroy of the old colonization 
road built from North Bay to Lake Temiskaming 
in 1888. From Mulock the adventurous tourist 
may find his way into Anderson and a chain of 
smaller lakes, all abounding with the best of trout fishing. Five 
miles on from Mulock we reach "the Summit". Here the rails 
of the T. & N. O. reach their greatest height above the sea. 



Trout Mills 
5.0 Miles 

Lounsbury 
7.4 Miles 

Feronia 
10.0 Miles 



Widdifield 
14.8 Miles 

Mulock 
19.4 Miles 

Tomiko 
28.6 Miles 



I. Camp Wabi- 
2. A 



KON 

Cochrane Camp Catch 

3. Cooling Off 



Jocko 

33.1 Miles 

Riddle 

35.2 Miles 



At Jocko the Hawkesbury Lumber Company 
have their depot, and all around are signs of the 
lumberjack's life. Riddle is the centre of a nest 
of woodland lakelets. From Riddle you may 
float your "Birch" through a maze of lakes and 
rivers down to the Ottawa. 



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TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 






Diver 
41.1 Miles 

Otter 
42.9 Miles 

Bushnell 
48.4 Miles 



Kenney 

49.7 Miles 

Redwater 

56.8 Miles 

Doherty 
64.7 Miles 



I. Silver Mining, Cobalt 

2. Silver "Bricks," Nipissinc Mine 

3. Railway Station. Cobalt 



Osborne At Diver you are in the Moose Country. Passing 
39.0 Miles Otter you enter the raspberry country. In July 
the sides of the track are lined with bushes red 
with the luscious fruit. Here the streams and 
lakes to the left open up canoe routes into the 
great lakeland of the Temagami country, any one 
of which repays a trip of exploration. At Bushnell 
you are at the starting point of a dozen different 
canoe routes leading off into the interminable 
forest in all directions. At your left rises a lofty 
hill said to be a mass of iron ore. A few miles on 
from Bushnell where the cleared allowance on either side widens 
out to 300 or 400 feet, you enter the Temagami Forest Reserve. 
From here for fifty or sixty miles to the north and west stretch 
marvellous areas of pine lands which the Ontario Government 
has set apart as a Forest Reserve, thus preserving the timber 
wealth in the interests of the people. 

At Kenney is a depot of the Spanish River Pulp 
and Paper Company. The pulpwood taken out 
is used in their pulp mill at Sturgeon Falls. Pass- 
ing Redwater, you skirt Redwater Lake on your 
left for some two miles. At Redwater are found 
the farthest south mining claims on this line of 
wonderful mineral discoveries. In the Station is 
an old deserted shaft from which one of the early 
miners hoped to extract values in silver and gold. A few miles 
north of Redwater you come upon Rabbit Creek, a beautiful 
bubbling brook which you cross and recross in such a marvellous 
way that you fall to asking yourself from which car window you 
will next have a vision of its loveliness. Doherty is situated on 
Lower Twin Lake, and a few miles further on, we reach Temagami. 

Temagami — Resting in the midst of the green wilderness of the 
Temagami Forest Reserve (50 miles by 60 miles) like some 
gigantic octopus with its innumerable legs and arms and feelers 
stretching out in every direction into this wonderland of ever- 
green hills, lies Lake Temagami. 

Temagami! Pronounced (te-mog-a-me) with a full, open, 
deep-chested tone. How the very sound of this Indian word for 
"deep water" carries one off into the pine woods! In it you hear 
the sounds of lapping waters and rustling firs; from it you catch 
the odors of the balsams and the pine trees, and with it settles 
down into your heart the "Peace of perfect days." 

Here you must come, if you really wish to enjoy Nature. 
Here are no conventional settlers' clearings. Here are no saw- 
mills sending out trails of black smoke, and mountains of bark 
and sawdust, to poison the clear air, and pollute the crystal 
waters. Half a mile after leaving the "fire-horse" at Temagami 
station you are in the bosom of the unbroken forest, surrounded 
by slopes of pine and balsam and fir, and lost in a labyrinth of 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 



5 




slands and inlets and channels, stretching for interminable distances north and 
south and east and west. All is yet as Nature left it — rolling hillsides clad in inter- 
minable green: islands and islets like emerald gems set in a field of bluest blue; 
and this it will be for the next, and the next, and succeeding generations. 

Matchless Temagami! Thou art to the wearied denizen of the busy haunts of 
men a very haven of peace and rest. 

Imagine this lake with its 1,600 islands and islets! There are 1,259 islands 
surveyed and marked on the government map, ready for leasing to the pros- 
pective cottager. Visiting four islands each day and remaining forty days each 
year it would take you ten years to merely pay each one a flying visit. 

Think of Temagami with its 3,000 miles of shore line! If you paddled around it 
once to explore its beauties you would have a canoe trip from Halifax to 
Vancouver and on some 200 miles into the Pacific Ocean. All this you may 
have without once making a carry or leaving the waters of Lake Temagami. 

No wonder that Cy Warman, after being caught and held, along with a 
dozen charmed and delighted Chicago newspapermen, authors, and poets in 
these Temagami north woods, came out singing. 

"Crystal Temagami, Wasacsinagami ! 

Low waves that beat on the shadowy shore. 
North of the Nipissing, up the Temiskaming, 

We will come back and sing you encore; 
Back to the wilds again, show me the way; 
Make me a child again, just for a day. 

"Wondrous Temagami, Wasacsinagami! 

Swift running rivers and skies that are blue, 
Out on thy deep again, rock me to sleep again, 
Rock me to sleep in my birch bark canoe; 
Back to the wild again, show me the way, 
Make me a child again, just for a day." 

Accommodations — You must not think that great hardships 
and much discomfort must be met in order to enjoy the mysteries 
of this wildwood elysium. The opposite is the fact. 

You travel in standard Pullman's, carried on fast solid 
vestibule trains right to the gateway of the Lake. This district 
is becoming so popular that established camps are taxed to the 
utmost, offering large opportunities for increasing accommoda- 
tion for tourists. 



carry you to any part 



I. 28 Pound Trout, Camp Wabi-kon 

2. Sunday Service, Cochrane Camp 



Boats connect with all trains and wil 
of the lake. 

Boat Line is operated by the Perron & Marsh Navigation 
Company, who will furnish reliable guides, fishing tackle and 
complete camp equipment. A letter to the Company at Tema- 
gami P.O. will bring you full information. 

The Ronnoco Hotel — At Temagami Station will be found the 
Ronnoco Hotel, under the management of the Temagami Fur 
Company. It is the only hotel in the Temagami Reserve. The 



6 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 




building is a commodious, three-story struc- 
ture, with accommodation for one hundred 
guests, and is situated within easy access of 
the Railway Station and the Lake. 

The Temagami Fur Company also operate 
Camp Acouchiching, located on an island at 
the south end of Lake Temagami, twenty-six 
miles from the Ronnoco Hotel. No part of 
this wonderful region is more beautiful. 
The island commands a picturesque view 
of the lake, its countless islands and cliff-like 
shores. The Camp has accommodation for 
one hundred guests. Large tents are provid- 
ed for families and smaller tents for one or 
two persons. The beds are individual steel 
army hospital cots. 

The Temagami Fur Company's registered 
launch, Keego, will make daily trips be- 
tween Temagami Station and Camp Acouch- 
iching, and their supply store at Temagami 
will be prepared to outfit tourists, furnish- 
ing them with canoes, camp equipment, and 
all necessary supplies at reasonable rates. 

For booklet and full information address 
Mr. George N. Aulabaugh, 1825Farnam St., 
Omaha, Neb., U.S.A., after July 1st, Temag- 
ami P.O., Ontario, Canada. 




2. Ninth Green. Haileybury Golf Course 



3. Golfing, Haileybury Links 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 



7 



A general store at Temagami where complete camp outfit 
and supplies can be secured at reasonable rates is operated by 
Mr. W. H. Guppy, who is also in position to accommodate about 
twenty guests. 

Bear Island — Seventeen miles up the Lake is found Bear Island. 
It is the heart of the octopus to which the lake has been com- 
pared. Every visitor should go to Bear Island. Standing on the 
wharf of the Hudson's Bay Company on the Island you have 
time to draw breath, after the excitement of the wonderful trip 
up the Northeast arm, and look about you. At your feet lap the 
wavelets of Temagami, the Indian name for "Deep Water." 
Down fifteen feet in its crystal depths you may catch a glimpse of 
a skulking bass. Above you stands the Hudson's Bay Post, not 
altogether what you might expect in this far northland, but a 
modern up-to-the-minute, plate-glass fronted store. Farther up 
the hill looms the Roman Catholic Church, its spire a heaven- 
ward pointing finger; its bell tolling out in this far-away wilder- 
ness the story of fidelity and heroism wrapped up in the lives of 
those Jesuit Fathers who first carried the story of the Cross to the 
Indian tribes in these then unknown forest fastnesses. To your 
ears come the soft sounds of the Ojibway tongue. That group 
of Indian youths and damsels chatting at the door of the store are 
lineal descendants of Hiawatha and Minnehaha. For it was from 
these Northern Ontario lakelands that the Ojibway chiefs came 
who told the Hiawatha legend to Schoolcraft, who repeated it to 
Longfellow, who enshrined it in those singing verses all English- 
speaking people know so well. 

At the Hudson's Bay Post, Bear Island, you will find the 
obliging factor. He will supply your every need. On his shelves 
will be found fresh groceries and provisions. So that you may 
live in this untouched wilderness and still enjoy the comforts of 
civilization. He knows all about fishing tackle, tourist's supplies, 
canoes and guides, and he can plan an itinerary for you whereby 
you will be assured of a pleasant holiday and plenty of fish. His 
boat-house is filled with a complete line of Chestnut's canvas- 
covered canoes. From him you can secure launches for private 
trips over Temagami, or outfits and guides for a trip even to 
Moose Factory and the salt waters of Hudson's Bay, if you are 
venturesome enough for such a journey. Write the Hudson's Bay 
Factor, Bear Island, P.O., Ontario, early so as to be sure of 
guides and outfit when you arrive. 

Permanent Camps — Temagami is a region which appeals 
especially to the individual camper, but there is good accommo- 
dation, however, at the permanent camps. These admirably 
situated and directed, area feature of the region. Under careful 
guidance trips are made from headquarters through river and 
lake teeming with game fish, and the guests are placed in touch 
with Nature in the truest sense of the term. 

Camp Wabi-Kon Resort. — Wabi-Kon is a resort camp, located 
on the south side of Temagami Island. It was established on 



Temagami Island in 1908 and occupies the historic site of the old 
Hudson's Bay Post, where over a century ago the dusky Ojib- 
ways bartered their furs for the "Fire Sticks" and "Long Knives" 
of the white men. 

Camp Wabi-Kon comprises a series of buildings and a tent 
colony. The buildings are all substantial in character and woodsey 
in their rustic appearance. The Camp is located on a jutting 
point. In the centre are the permanent buildings; and on the 
east and west shores, overlooking the lake in both directions, are 
the sleeping quarters. They are a little apart from the working 
centre of the Camp — far enough away for restfulness and quiet 
and close enough for convenience. 

Wabi-Kon accommodates 100 guests. The Main Buildings 
comprise the following: — 

The Bungalow Building — This is a rustic building with ample 
porch, containing a fire-place that will take in and burn "real 
logs ". This building is the Camp's general lounging-room and 
social gathering place. 

The Dining Room is a very large building used also as a loung- 
ing-room, with wide stone porches on two sides. It is built on the 
point of the island, so as to command water views in every direc- 
tion. The dining-room seats 100, and tables range in size from 
four to eight persons. Wabi-Kon has been noted for some years 
for the excellency of its table. 

The Sleeping Quarters are composed of one and two room 
cabins and floored tents. Tent living in this northern region is 
very popular. The tents are all floored, walled, and are absolute- 
ly dry and comfortable. They accommodate one and two per- 
sons. All have double roofs, which serve not only to keep them 
from dampness, but also keeps them cool on warm days. The 
tents and cabins are all comfortably furnished and the beds are 
good. 

There is a fine sandy bathing beach, and a splendid livery for 
canoes, rowboats and launches. Capable and experienced guides 
are also available. There is an excellent outfitting department 
maintained in connection with the Camp. 

The fishing in the Camp's immediate vicinity is unexcelled. 
Wabi-Kon is in the very heart of Temagami, and in every direc- 
tion the bays and bayous, the arms and inlets of this most 
mysterious lake stretch out from the Camp providing the most 
satisfying fishing grounds. 

For full particulars and booklet address Miss L. A. Orr, 
(before June 12th) 250 Wright Ave., Toronto, Canada, (after 
June 12th) Wabi-Kon Camp, Temagami, P.O., Ontario, Canada. 
Camp Temagami. — Is situated in the south arm of Lake Tema- 
gami, upon an island known to the Indians as "Mitawanga", 
"the island with sandy beaches." and which is more generally 
known as Cochrane Camp, was established in 1900, and has 



8 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 



accommodation for fifty boys. Younger boys form a separate 
division and are looked after with special care. The camp has 
some accommodation for adult friends or relations of the boys. 
Outfits for side-trips, skiffs or canoes, fishing accessories, etc. 
are provided from the camp stock. A daily mail service is con- 
ducted by the camp launch "Nancy". This camp had the honor 
of accommodating and entertaining Their Excellencies the Duke 
and Duchess of Devonshire, with members of their family and 
retinue during the visit of the vice-regal party to Temagami in 
1917. An illustrated prospectus containing detailed information 
may be had upon application to A. L. Cochrane, Upper Canada 
College, Toronto, or (after June 25th) Temagami, P.O., Ontario. 
Keewaydin Camp. — One of the most famous, as well as one o^ 
the oldest camps on the continent, is Keewaydin, an American 
camp in the heart of this Canadian wilderness. This camp which 
was founded in 1893, is on Devil's Island, in Lake Temagami, in 
the middle of Temagami Forest Reserve. To this camp come 
every year a large number of American boys — principally young 
fellows in the preparatory schools. Illustrated booklets, giving 
all particulars, may be had from the Director, Hon. A. S. Gregg 
Clark, M.N.G.S., the Gunnery School, Washington, Conn. 

Mrs. John Turner. — Mr. and Mrs. John Turner are among the 
earliest residents of Bear Island — Mr. Turner coming as an 
employee of the Hudson's Bay Company. Mrs. Turner has 
accommodation for 35 guests, some in neat detached sleeping 
cabins. All may be assured of satisfactory, if unpretending, 
entertainment and plenty of good wholesome food. Write early 
to Mrs. John Turner, Bear Island, P.O., Ontario, to be sure of 
reservations. 

Friday's Resort. — All who have ever visited Temagami are 
familiar with the fame of the Friday Brothers as expert Indian 
guides. Mr. and Mrs. William Friday have accommodation for 
20 guests, in a comfortable frame house, on the Friday point, 
about three miles from Bear Island. Mr. Friday operates a 
gasoline launch which is for hire by the patrons of the house. He 
knows exactly where to take his parties for the best fishing. 
Write early to Mr. William Friday, Bear Island. P.O , Ontario, 
to secure accommodation. 

Advantages of Temagami. What makes Temagami such an 
unrivalled health resort? Why do a few weeks in these forest 
wilds reconstruct a broken down physical constitution and 
give a tired, wornout man a new lease of life, sending him back to 
his work with such a store of energy that he finds the ten months 
of following toil a thing to be enjoyed sooner than to be feared? 
Temagami's advantages may be enumerated as follows: — 
1. Its Latitude. Lake Temagami lies with its southern extrem- 
ity in 47 degrees north latitude, or 300 miles north of Toronto, 
500 miles north of New York, 700 miles north of Washington. 
This insures a delightful summer climate — clear, warm, days 
and invigorating, cool nights. 



2. Its Altitude. Lake Temagami lies over 1,000 feet above sea 
level. If on some heated August day in New York, you were 
carried up 1 ,000 feet above the top of the Metropolitan Life 
tower, you can imagine the change in climatic conditions which 
would result. Temagami is not only 1,000 feet above the level 
of New York, but it is 500 miles farther north. Latitude and 
altitude unite in giving a clear, dry, rarefied atmosphere. 

3. Its Geological Formation. Lake Temagami lies in the 
Laurentian area. Its shores and hillsides are composed of 
crystalline or granitic rocks. Almost entire absence of limestone 
has caused its water to be comparatively soft. The hard nature 
of its shore line and bottom has prevented disintegration and the 
formation of mud or sand. Everywhere you will find rock and 
water, and rock and water only. There is, with rare exceptions, 
no mud, no weeds, nothing offensive; only the bare, clean rocks 
and the crystal-clear waters into whose pellucid depths you may 
gaze to a distance of twenty or even thirty feet and note the 
active motion of the sportive minnow, or the more sedate move- 
ments of the lazy four-pound black bass. To those living in 
limestone regions, where the water is hard, the lakes and rivers 
filled with muddy silt; and, therefore, urinary and malarial 
troubles prevalent, a month or more each year in Temagami 
must add to the span of life and probably prevent years of excruc- 
iating agony. Can you afford to be so busy that you cannot give 
yourself this opportunity for increased health and happiness? 
Think twice before you decide to spend another year with no 
let-up to the dreary treadmill of business. 

4. Its Clear, Dry Atmosphere. No one can fully appreciate 
the clearness and lack of humidity in the air of Temagami, except 
those who have spent a week or so in its wilds and fastnesses. 
Some conception of it may be conveyed to the non-visitor from 
the following facts: — 

A. The writer has frequently carried on conversation with 
people camped on an island a full mile away. To appreciate this, 
measure off in your mind a mile from where you now sit, and 
imagine shouting to, and being heard by, a person sitting at the 
other end of that mile. This is wireless telegraphy without a 
sending or a receiving instrument, except the ears and the throats 
of two lusty campers. In the still, clear, Temagami evenings, 
the weird cry of the solitary loon, the sharp yelp of the questing 
wolf, the hoarse bellow of the angry bull-moose, come over the 
quiet waters mingled with the incessant bark of the Indian dogs, 
the lightsome laugh of some care-free tourist, and the dip, dip 
of some belated paddle. 

B. Everywhere in Temagami is "echo rock". Anywhere 
between the islands, and where can you go and not be between 
islands, you can get as many as six distinct echoes. Some August 
night, with the moon sailing through fleecy clouds, and the 
planets shining like points of light in the crystal depths below 
your canoe, let a clear baritone voice roll out a flood of song among 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 



9 




1. Hudson's Bay Post. Bear Island 

2. Prize 6J pound Bass (small-mouthed) Caught in Lake Temacami 

3. Camp Wabi-kon 



Temagami's islands and you might think the Gods themselves 
had awakened and that every rock and islet was the home of some 
musical spirit voicing the theme of the night in silver song. Come 
to this "Gem of the North Land" if it be only to hear the echoes 
on a still night under a harvest moon. 

C. Your clothing will not stay wet in Temagami. Draw in 
your line on a hand troll over your left leg and soon a wet patch 
appears on your trousers, only to become perfectly dry in the 
next ten minutes, while you are cooking the luscious pickerel 
which rewarded your labors. 

No ennui, no indigestion, no catarrh, no hay fever in such an 
atmosphere. Come once, to put these assertions to the test. 

An Ideal Trip. — Some fine morning in July or August you leave 
the Hudson's Bay Post, Bear Island, where you have outfitted for 
your canoe trip into the unbroken forest and unexplored lake- 
land. The clear northland air is wine to your nostrils, and 
you drink great invigorating gulps while you bend to the paddle 
as your canoe threads the sinuous passages lying between the 
islands of Temagami on your way to the first portage. Care slips 
away, the blood springs leaping through your veins, you wonder 
why you love it so much. You forget that a thousand years ago 
your ancestors lived this care-free life of the open and do as you 
will you cannot live the old life down. The unnaturalness and 
conventionalities of the city cannot satisfy the heart hunger for 
the smell of the pines, the swish of the paddle, the sights and 
sounds of the portage, and that indefinable something which 
makes every nerve tingle and every fibre vibrate when the wary 
bass down twenty feet deep in Temagami's pellucid waters makes 
his first nibble at your guilty hook. 

But here you are at the end of one happy hour five miles 
southwest down the lake and at the foot of your first portage. It 
is clearly marked on the shore line of the lake by the white poster 
of the Fire-Ranger tacked to the trunk of some outstanding tree. 

While your guide is unpacking the canoe (it is not necessary 
to employ a guide if you are willing to do the work yourself, the 
merest tyro in woodcraft could not lose his way), you have leisure 
to look about you. Above you towers the pine clad hillsides of 
the mainland, at your feet lies the blue bosom of Temagami 
shining in the sunlight like some floor of polished metal broken 
only by the wake of your passing canoe which you can yet trace 
for rods on the otherwise unbroken surface. Stretching away far 
as the eye can reach is a kaleidoscopic view of island and lake, 
mingling and intermingling in one maze of blue water and green 
shore line, while above all broods the vaulted arch of illimitable 
empyrean blue. 

Pure Lake. — The canoe is on your shoulders, or the tump line 
across your forehead, your back is bent and you trudge manfully 
up the boulder strewn pathway. Up! up! for Pure Lake lies 
before you nestling among its mountains 1 ,078 feet above the 



10 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 



sea. The portage is only one-fourth of a mile in length, but in 
that space you have had a fatiguing climb, for as you put your 
canoe down Temagami lies still glittering in the sunlight 1 10 feet 
below you. 

So this is what you have come to see! You stand transfixed 
by the beauty of the scene. It is grand, inspiring. The little 
blue lake, with its elbows (some call it Elbow Lake) promontories, 
and with all crystal depths of bluest blue, surrounded by towering 
cliffs and frowning ridges from which you may catch glimpses of 
Temagami, running like ribbons of silver among its myriad 
islands of living emerald. 

It is a sight for the Gods. Try it once for yourself and be 
convinced. 

You may remain here for a day, or for a week, exploring the 
farthest nooks and corners, and searching the cool depths of the 
pure waters for the elusive bass and trout and be well repaid for 
your stay. But we are to push on, for other lakes await us, and 
other scenes allure. 

Gull Lake. — Keeping ever to the left, resisting the temptation 
to enter the fine bays and channels opening to the right you soon 
reach the western end of the lake, and see again the guiding 
blazon of the Fire-Ranger's poster as it beckons onwards from 
the white shaft of some silver birch. This marks the opening of 
every portage, and makes travelling in the wilderness as possible 
as finding your way from place to place in a strange city is pos- 
sible through the names and numbers on the lamp posts. 

Here, then, is your finger post in the wilderness. After days 
and weeks in the wilderness these posters shining out in the 
greenery making sure and certain the way, and speaking as they 
do of security, order, and the presence of man, come to be looked 
on as lone-land friends and are often greeted with a glad "hurrah". 
How, with all our longings for the campfire and the wilderness we 
after all yearn for the companionship of our fellow men. Strange 
mortals, we! 

But you are over the portage again. It's only some hundred 
yards in length, and no hill to climb. You are standing on the 
shore of a tiny, weedy, lakelet. Keep quiet, for if you have not 
made too much noise, you may here catch sight of a lordly bull 
moose nosing among the lily pads for his morning meal, or you 
will certainly see tracks that mark his presence but a short time 
before in the torn, trailing stems of the water plants and the 
disturbed condition of the peaty bottom. 

Try a cast here, along the weedy edge for a skulking bass. 
They love to lie among the stems of the water lillies at the edge 
of deeper waters. If you get a beauty or two you will have no 
uneasiness about your dinner a few miles farther on. 

Across the waters of this miniature lakelet again the gleaming 
signal of the otherwise hidden portage lures you on. Another 



short carry of a hundred level yards; and behold! an inland sea 
stands revealed sequestered in the bosom of this wilderness of 
broken mountains, and pineclad hillside. 

Gull Lake lies before you. Stretching its irregular length 
seven or eight miles between, in many places, cliffs rising sheer 
from the water three or four hundred feet, flanked by hillsides 
clothed with green woods ranged rank over rank in "gay theatric 
pride". It is magnificent. 

You may stay here for a day, a week, or a life time. Camping 
places are numerous and the fishing all that the most exacting 
angler can desire. If your stay must be short, or you have gone 
far enough into the forest-land you may return to your out- 
fitting place from this lake, by travelling to the north end of the 
lake and taking the long portage back to Temagami. It will test 
your endurance, for it is one mile and a quarter in length. 

But you tarry, in Gull Lake only for the mid-day meal. 
Many tempting places for the camp-fire are found. Your appetite 
is good for you started early, and the hour for the nooning soon 

passes away. 

Turtle Lake. — Again you are in the canoe and away for the 
southwest corner of Gull Lake. The gleaming white is again seen 
marking your way into the mazes of the unknown before you. 
Again your canoe is on your shoulders, and over an easy, well- 
marked portage of about half a mile in length, you find your 
way into Turtle Lake. 

Manito-Pee-Pa-Gee. — Turtle Lake is not where you stop. 
Paddling to the south end you are again guided to the opening 
of the portage. An easy carry of half a mile leads you into a small 
lakelet from which a short portage of one hundred yards brings 
you to Manito-pee-pa-gee, where you are to stay for the night. 

You are now probably fifteen miles from your starting point 
in the morning. You have covered six fairly tiresome portages 
and as it has been your first day at the paddle you are honestly 
weary. But if the wind was not high and you started at eight 
o'clock in the morning, you should be safely camped in the Lake 
of the Devil by five o'clock in the afternoon. You will find the 
first island in the lake provides an ideal spot on which to pitch 
your tent. 

Surely you are now in the land of romance. Manito-pee-pa- 
gee is freely translated by the white man Devil's Lake. Why, is 
not revealed, for a sweeter, quieter, more reposeful spot could 
scarce be found. But Devil's Lake, it is, and as the smoke of the 
campfire curls up, and up, and up, into the gathering darkness, 
before you roll into your blankets upon the fragrant spruce 
boughs, you conjure up all kinds of weird stories of Ojibway 
lovers and dusky maidens over whose destinies ruled the malign 
influence of this Demon of the Forest who left his memory woven 
in the cognomen of this lake. But the moon comes up and the 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 



1 1 




1. The Beach, New Liskeard 

2. Railway Station, New Liskeard 
3 The Beach New Liskeard 



4. Glengarry Stock Farm 

5. Enclehart Station Grounds 

6. Residential Section New Liskeard 



12 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 



stars leap out and the silver light dances and sparkles on the 
living waters and in the silver sheen of the moonlight all thoughts 
of darkness and devils vanish, and you see again as in the long- 
ago, the vine-clad porch of the country home on which is standing 
in the golden light of the gloaming, one far sweeter than any 
dusky forest maiden of the Temagami Lake land. Soon you are 
in your blankets and off to dream-land to live over again the 
delightful hours on lake and portage which this glad day has 
brought. 

Wa-Wi-Ash-Kash-Ing. — Early hours obtain in the Northland. 
By six o'clock you are astir. Probably it is the lure of a trout 
which will first engage your attention. But soon the fever to 
move is in your blood, and you wish to take the stiffness of yes- 
terday's paddling out of your arms. 

Leaving your tent standing, for you are to return to it again, 
you paddle to the south end of the lake. The portage is readily 
found. A short, easy carry lands you in a lakelet, from which 
another just as short and easy puts you into Wa-wi-ash-kash-ing, 
the home of the many moose and the big bass. 

Grassy Lake, as Wa-wi-ash-kash-ing, is rendered in English, 
is the sportman's paradise. Here have been caught some of the 
largest bass this country has produced, and here as many as 
eleven moose have been seen in one group. You may spend on 
this lake a day or a week. Time flies when the fishing is good, and 
for good fishing you need go no farther. 

But the fever is yet in your blood. You are off again, and 
night finds you in your tent on Devil's Lake. 

Emerald Lake. — It is the morning of your third day. You have 
lived a year in the last two days since you started from your 
outfitting post in the early morning, forty-eight hours ago. You 
can scarcely encompass the joy, novelty, and ecstacy of it all. 

If you must, you can now return through Turtle Lake, Gull 
Lake and the mile and a quarter portage to your outfitting point, 
but you say. No! Then on! on! into still unexplored wilderness. 

The tent is down and in the canoe, and you are on your way 
to the north end of the lake. Passing on the right the portage 
by which you entered Devil's Lake, on the left, you soon discover 
the white portage signal again, and are off on a rough carry 
something over half a mile in length to a lakelet from which an 
easy half-mile portage lands you in Emerald Lake. Here is an- 
othei paradise for black bass. You may tarry here for all the 
fishing you want. At the northern end of the lake you come to 
a fine camping place on the right hand shore, and here you may 
pitch for your third night. 

Obabika Lake. — It is the morning of your fourth day. The 
full power of the forest siren is now felt. The wanderlust controls 
and it is still on, on, into the forest depths. 



The camp is struck and you are in your canoe again, off for 
Obabika. O-bah-be-ka! how these Algonquin words ring out in 
full-chested, deep-toned vowel-sounds, carrying one back to the 
moan of the pines, the weird laugh of the loon, and the glamour 
of the early morning lake with the mists rising like gauzy veils 
from the waters lured upward to the skies by the loving touch of 
Old Sol, just climbing over the tops of the eastern hills. 

Again the white poster on the tree trunk is your guide. You 
are over the first portage, an easy quarter mile, before you realize 
you have commenced another day of forest marvels. Again the 
woodland lakelet receives you. On the farther shore gleams again 
the alluring beacon. A few swift strokes of the paddle and again 
you are on the portage. This time it is a good half mile, but all 
down hill, so you do not feel in the least exhausted when you place 
your canoe in the waters of Obabika, shining at your feet. Like 
Gull Lake, again you are in a considerable body of water, for 
Obabika stretches irregularly for twelve or fifteen miles to the 
northward. 

All day you paddle, leisurely forward fishing in the likely 
places, pausing to admire the most striking bits of scenery, chat- 
ting for an hour or so with the fire-ranger whose camp is a con- 
spicuous object on an island half way up the lake. If you must, 
again you can make your outfitting post before the setting of the 
sun, by crossing the portage half-way up Obabika Lake, plainly 
marked on the right hand shore, into Obabika Bay and taking a 
vigorous paddle down it into the North West Arm and thus into 
old Temagami again. 

But you still long for more forest and lake, so continuing to 
the north end of Obabika you find a perfect camping spot on 
the left hand shore and here your tent is pitched for the fourth 

night. 

Wakimika. — Your fifth day in Temagami opens by a paddle 
down the creek leading from Obabika to Lake Wakimika. Its 
opening is plainly marked only a few minutes paddle from your 
camping place. 

In Wakimika you may spend a week with the sportive bass 
and be well repaid, but we are to hurry on for the lure of Diamond 
Lake and Lady Evelyn Falls is before us. So paddling to the 
north east angle of Wakimika, where the opening of the stream 
flowing from Wakimika to Diamond Lake is again clearly marked, 
you start on your way to the far-famed Lady Evelyn Falls. The 
passage of the stream is broken by two portages, both very short, 
but the last one very stoney. Now you are in Diamond Lake. 
Passing on down the lake some five miles you turn to your left 
up a large arm opening to the northward, and another mile or 
so brings you to that northland marvel of sylvan beauty, Lady 
Evelyn Falls. As you approach the end of the arm, watch for 
the landing place on the right hand as there is a possibility of 
being drawn over the Falls. 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 




Here more than ever you will feel the call of the woodland. The scene is 

magnificently picturesque. The green pines, the tumbling waters, the scarred and 

furrowed rocks, and below the winding river so calm and peaceful fills up a scene 
that stands unequalled for wildwood beauty in the world. 

A few rods below the Falls the river is again tortured by a narrow gorge through 
which its waters rush to plunge into a still, black pool in the cool depths of which the 
biggest and gamiest black bass of the northland lie waiting your enticing lure. Go 
and win one! and then, returning to the flat rocks at the Falls, prepare your noon-day 
meal, and enjoy the luscious bass in the presence of Nature's scenic marvels. 

As you sit, and talk, and wonder, you will long to go on to the northward and explore 
the marvels of Lady Evelyn Lake, the scenic gem of this northland country, gaze on 
the marvels of the tumbling Matawabika Falls and float down the majestic Montreal 
River to Latchford and civilization again. But the Hudson's 
Bay Factor, Bear Island, is waiting for your canoe, a chair be- 
hind a desk in a far away Southern city is calling, and loath as 
you are you must turn again to the southward. So as the sun 
is standing far down in the west you are again in your canoe 
pointing south on the home stretch. About five miles down the 
lake you spy a fine camping spot on an island, and here you 
spend your fifth night. 

Sandy Inlet. — Next morning you are up early and away. At 
the south east angle of Diamond Lake you find the entrance to 
Sharp Rock portage. It is fully a quarter-mile in length, some- 
what hilly and rocky, but you are soon over and paddling down 
Sharp Rock Inlet. 

Keeping well to the left you pass Beaver and Deer Islands on 
the right, and pause for a look at the ruins of the Lady Evelyn 
Hotel, which was burned down in July, 1912. Now, if you must, 
a paddle of twelve miles straight south will bring you to your 
outfitting place again, but if possible stay another day for a 
peep at Sandy Inlet and a chat with Father Paradis. 

Then from the ruins of the Lady Evelyn an easterly course 
will bring you to the entrance of the portage on the shore line, 
which will by an easy quarter-mile carry bring you to the finest 
sand beach in Temagami Here is the home and here are the 




1. Cut By a Beavf.r 

2. Loading Logs 



3 Porquis Junction 

4 Experimental Farm, Monteith 



14 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 



farms of Father Paradis. Fortunate will you be if you find the 
Father at home for this pathfinder of the northland is a most 
intelligent and entertaining character. 

Dinner at Sandy Inlet on fresh vegetables, milk and eggs> 
always purchasable from the French habitant in charge, puts a 
new vigor in your muscles, for after a week on canned beans and 
black bass we turn again to the "fleshpots of Egypt" with a re- 
newed zest. So you are off again to the southward. A paddle of 
five miles brings you to Red Pine Island. Here you pitch camp 
early, so as to allow a full evening to paddle over to Devil's 
Island and enjoy the hospitality of Keewaydin Camp and become 
acquainted with the unique personality, A. S. Gregg Clarke, 
founder and conductor of the most important wildwoods camp 
in America. Possibly you will be tempted to shoot over to 
Granny Island lying close by to take a sly peep at Kokomis, the 
Lot's wife of the Ojibway people. Only this wife is re-produced 
in stone, and is said to have, at one time been the wilful partner 
of his Satanic majesty. At any rate here she is certain enough, 
clearly outlined, and a worth while natural curiosity. But you 
are back in your tent again dreaming away your sixth and last 
night on the springy balsams. 

Ko-Ko-Ko Lake. — Early next morning finds you astir for 
is not this your last day in Temagami? If you must, a brisk 
paddle of six miles south will bring you again to your outfitting 
place. But the best wine has been left for the last day of the 
feast if you can stay for the trip down Ko-ko-ko Lake and Bay. 

Paddling east for a mile or so brings you to the portage into 
Ko-ko-ko Lake. It is an easy carry of some 200 yards. Here, 
you will find at the mouth of the stream entering the lake on its 
east side a splendid fishing hole, filled with gamey black bass, and 
gamier pike. You will have the fight of your life with some of 
these beauties, if they are biting when you arrive. 

But you are off again for Ko-ko-ko Bay and your starting 
point. The portage cannot be missed at the south end of the 
lake. It is one of the most beautiful you have seen. A clearly 
marked and well-worn pathway through a forest of silver birches, 
and poplars, one loves to linger over every part of it. 

Your noon-day meal is eaten at the end of the portage. For 
the last time you pack up the impedimenta of your trip. For the 
last time all is stowed in the canoe and you are off on the bosom 
of the Ko-ko-ko Bay. Six miles to the south, through one of the 
most beautiful, sinuous, and entrancing of Temagami's waterways 
you thread your way to your outfitting point again. On either 
side rise magnificent receding hillsides clothed to the water's 
edge with the interminable green of the forest, while the mazy 
thread of the silver water allures you on, and on, and on. 

At last, it is all over. You are on the dock at Bear Island 
again, and surrounded by the sights and sounds of civilization 
once more. Manito-pee-pa-gee, Wa-wi-ash-kash-ing, the thrill, 



of humming reel, the tug of the lusty trout, the shimmering moon 
on the silvery water, the weird cry of the loon, the mystic song 
of the Ojibway guide, the swish of the paddle and the slumberous 
song of the splashing water fall are as memories of the past and 
you again don the armour of the every day fight; cap, and sweater, 
and moccasins fall off and in their place the Christie and the four- 
button sack reign supreme. You are off again for the office and 
the ten-month-grind, but better and stronger, deeper and sweeter 
for the seven days in the wildwoods of Temagami. 

Are You Going To Come? — This trip may be made in a week 
as here described, or it may occupy a month at the will and 
pleasure of the camper. Any party composed of men used to 
canoes and bush life may safely negotiate it without guides, if 
they are willing to do the portaging and cooking. If you write 
to the Manager of the Perron and Marsh Navigation Co., 
Temagami, or to the Hudson's Bay Factor, Bear Island, you may 
secure guides and learn the exact cost of outfitting. In writing 
state definitely the trip you wish to take, the time you wish to 
spend, number in the party, etc. etc. 

Latchford, At Latchford the Montreal River is crossed on a 
95.4 Miles steel bridge of three spans. Industry — lumbering. 
Population 200 three mills. Anglican and Presbyterian churches. 

Cobalt, The Silver Mining Centre of Northern Ontario. 

104.1 Miles Silver was discovered here seventeen years ago. 
Population Messrs. McKinley and Darragh engaged in cutting 
4,421 ties for the construction of the T. & N. O. Railway, 

one Sunday afternoon were idling about, tossing 
pebbles into the lake. They were interested to find that which, 
to them, appeared to be small nuggets of lead. Further search 
revealed the presence of many such nuggets. Curiosity prompted 
these men to have the nuggets analysed, at which time it became 
known that they were in reality pieces of silver eroded down from 
the silver bearing veins which outcropped at the surface. It was 
more than two years before excitement manifested itself to any 
large degree, owing to the tendency to doubt the presence of 
precious metal in very large quantities in this Province. From 
the year of discovery, 1903, up to the middle of 1920, the mines of 
Cobalt have produced 309,010,836 ounces of silver valued at 
$188,41 1 ,972. Dividends paid amount to more than $80,000,000. 
while the treasuries of the operating companies contain between 
$15,000,000 and $18,000,000. The net profit realized has thus 
amounted to about fifty per cent, of the total production, reflect- 
ing both the richness of the deposits and the efficiency with which 
the mines have been operated. Current production from these 
mines is at the late of about 1,000,000 ounces of silver every 
thirty days, while ore reserves secure a large output for a long 
time to come. The Nipissing- Mine producing at the rate of over 
$4,000,000 a year is the largest producing silver mine in Canada, in 
fact being one of the leading producers in the British Empire. 
Not only is silver being mined in the rich Cobalt District, but it 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 



15 






I Airing the Sheep. Enclehart 

2 Angora Goats at Englehart 

3, 4. 5 Harvest Fields Northern Ontario 



has also been found at intervals for some twenty miles to the 
south-east and also at intervals for about sixty miles to the north- 
west. At this late date with interest becoming more or less 
decentralized from the point of greatest concentration of metal 
at Cobalt, the outlying districts are beginning to offer promise of 
yielding a large amount of silver. Developments of great im- 
portance are, therefore, still expected from this field. 

At Cobalt Station you may notice one of the enterprises 
initiated with a view to winning an increased supply of the 
precious white metal. This is the basin of Cobalt Lake, now 
practically dry. This lake was pumped out in order to allow of 
mining operations under the bed of the lake and some of the 
richest veins in the camps are now being worked there. Kerr 
Lake, a short distance from the town, was also removed from the 
map in a similar way in order to ensure safety of mining opera- 
tions under the bed of the lake. In the early days of the camp 
the silver ore was shipped in box cars to be milled at other points, 
but great ore crushing plants are now in operation and what was 
at one time considered waste material from the mines is turning 
out silver in paying quantities. One of these big mills the 
"Nipissing" may be seen on the hillside across the lake from 
the railway. Overhead are conveyors taking the mineralized 
rock from the mine to be crushed. There is enough ore in sight 
to keep Cobalt busy for many years to come. 

Cobalt has practically every convenience that is found in 
towns and cities of other sections of the country. A bountiful 
and steady supply of electric power gives motive energy and 
light to the Town's industries, business blocks and private 
houses. An electric railway extending for fifteen miles connects 
Cobalt and Kerr Lake, North Cobalt, Haileybury and New 
Liskeard. The town has one of the most up-to-date Young 
Men's Christian Association Buildings in the country. Six 
churches provide all that is necessary in spiritual things. Public 
and separate schools under efficient staffs give facilities for 
education to the young. Four branch banks cater to the needs 
of commercial life of the town. A branch of the Victorian Order 
of Nurses, the Mines Hospital with a competent staff of nurses, 
and several doctors take care of the physical well-being of the 
citizens. 

North Here are located the office and car barns of the 

Cobalt Nipissing Central Railway. 

107.0 Miles Industries, lumber mill and factory, shingle and 
Population lath mill. 

1,765 Soil is very suitable for market gardening and 

good market immediately available for produce. 
Haileybury At Haileybury agricultural lands replace the forest 
108.7 Miles and mining areas, and one cannot fail to be lm 
Population pressed with the beauty of the surroundings in 

3,700 which these hard working settlers find their in- 

spiration. Haileybury is the home of many of the 
Cobalt mining men. It is connected with Cobalt by the Nipissing 




1. Northern Academy. Monteith 

2. Experimental Farm. Monteith 



3. Poplar Pulp Wood 

4. Pulp Wood. Black Township 



5. Breaking Log Jam, Connaught 
6 Railway Station. Timmins 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 



17 



Central Electric Railway, is the judicial seat of the new District 
of Temiskaming, and one of the oldest and most beautiful towns 
in Northern Ontario. 

Haileybury has one of the finest nine-hole golf courses in 
Canada. It covers fifty acres immediately adjoining the town 
on the north, overlooking Lake Temiskaming. Total length 
approximately two and a quarter miles. Three holes over five 
hundred yards each — total membership two hundred, for terms 
apply to the secretary of the club. 

Public Buildings. — Court house, Land Titles Office, Armories. 
Educational Buildings. — High school, mining school, two 
public schools and separate school. Churches of all denomina- 
tions. Children's shelter and Hospital, four banks. 
Industries. — Box and stave factory, pulp mill and lumber mill. 

There is a fine public park overlooking Lake Temiskaming. 
with baseball diamond, four tennis courts, two bowling greens and 
bath houses. 

Transportation. — The Ville Marie Navigation Co. operate 
from Haileybury to all points on Lake Temiskaming. 

New Liskeard New Liskeard is the leading agricultural town 
113.9 Miles in this part of Northern Ontario. Settlers first 
Population came to New Liskeard a quarter of a century 
2,800 ago. They travelled here by way of the Ottawa 

River and Lake Temiskaming, on the shore of 
which the town is situated. This was several years prior to the 
building of the T. & N. O. Railway. On account of the advanced 
state of agricultural development in the vicinity of New Liskeard 
the produce from this area is larger than from any other part of 
the District. This in itself is pointed to as evidence in support of 
the contention that as the agricultural lands in all parts of Nor- 
thern Ontario become more highly developed and with more of 
the timber removed, the crops which may be grown may include 
most of those now grown successfully in old or Southern Ontario. 

New Liskeard is claimed to be the healthiest town in the 
District. 

Public Buildings. Two large public schools, continuation 
school ( a high school is to be erected the coming spring) separate 
school, private school. 

Churches. Presbyterian, Methodist. Baptist, English and 
Catholic. 

Amusements. I Opera I louse (seats 700 people) 1 large curling 
rink. I large skating rink. One of the finest recreation grounds 
this side of Toronto, located on Lake Temiskaming, consisting 
of thirty-eight acres, right in the heart of the town and has the 
finest beach in Northern Ontario. The grounds have a half mile 
track in splendid condition, a stand seating 850 people, a large 
hall for amusements such as dancing and concerts. 



Fire Protection. — New Liskeard has an unlimited supply of the 
very best spring water, considered by many outside residents 
to be the purest water supply in the district. 

Light and Power. — The streets, and most of the homes, are 
well lighted with electric lights. 

Agriculture. — Here is located the Ontario Government Agri- 
culture School and the Ontario Government Creamery 
Industries. — These include two machine shops manufacturing 
mining and industrial machinery, two sash and door factories, 
ice cream factory, box shook and woodenware factory, bottling 
works and grist mill. 

Pulpwood. — There is a great quantity of poplar wood to be had 
farther back from the town. 

Game and Fish. — There is splendid hunting to be had within 
ten miles of New Liskeard. Moose and red deer are beginning to 
come into the country west of the town. There are several trout 
streams located within an hour's ride. About ten miles west from 
New Liskeard and over splendid motor roads are several small 
lakes, and here can be had grey trout, pickerel and speckled 
trout. North Temiskaming, about sixteen miles from New 
Liskeard is situated at the head of Lake Temiskaming, and to 
this point many hunters come annually to hunt moose. Guides 
can be had at this point through Mr. J. P. Ranger. 

Outside Industries. — Shipping point. New Liskeard — There 
are several large sawmills located west of the town, as far as ten 
miles from the railroad, and these mills produce millions of feet 
of lumber annually. 

Business Openings. — There are from ten to twelve thousand 
people located adjacent to New Liskeard. This does not include 
the many towns on the Quebec side of the lake, which can be 
reached by boat or motor from New Liskeard, and there are 
splendid opportunities for the manufacture of various staple 
articles used in the home, on the farm and in the building up of the 
country. 

Uno Park, Leaving New Liskeard we enter "The Clay Belt." 
119.7 Miles This is a vast new land, which, roughly may be 
Population said to extend from the Bell River in Quebec to 
100 400 miles west of the Ontario-Quebec boundary, 

varying in depth north and south from twenty- 
Thornloe, five to one hundred miles, and served by the 
126.1 Miles Canadian Government Railways and the T. & N.O. 
Population The Clay Belt proper comprises an area of at 
400 least 16,000,000 acres of level or undulating ground 

with an entire absence of stones. The soil is a 
rich clay loam and it is a safe statement that from sixty to seventy 
five per cent, is good farm land, and this percentage will be con- 
siderably increased by comprehensive drainage, which the rivers 
will aid in making easy. 




I. Hollinger Gold Mines 



2 Corner of Iroquois Falls 



3. Abitibi Power 6c Paper Plant, Iroquois 



TIMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 



19 



Earlton, The country about Earlton is very beautiful, and 
129.9 Miles the agricultural lands are partially level and 
Population partially rolling, but unsurpassed in fertility. 
150 From Earlton the Elk Lake Branch runs a distance 

of twenty-eight and a half miles to Elk Lake on 
the Montreal River. In addition to being a mining centre Elk 
Lake is the centre of a great lumbering business. 

Uno Park, Thornloe and Earlton all have public schools and 
churches. Lumber mills are situated at Uno Park and Earlton 
Junction. 

Elk Lake Elk Lake is connected with Gowganda by a 
158.6 Miles Government Road. The Miller Lake O'Brien 
Population Mine, Gowganda, has been a producer of high 

450 grade silver ore for many years. The Tretheway 

Silver Mine, adjacent to the Miller Lake property 
is looked upon as a certain producer Development work is being 
carried on, on several other properties. The Matachewan Dis- 
trict looks very promising as a gold mining centre and further 
west, holders of claims are confident they have a large body of 
paying asbestos ore. Power is available at Indian Chutes and 
High Falls and on the Montreal River north of Elk Lake. 
Heaslip Good farming country, suitable for mixed farm" 

136.2 Miles ing and dairying. Two public schools, two 
Population churches, four general stores, community hall 

150 and orange hall, lumber mill. 

Englehart Englehart is a thriving point. Over $200,000 
139.8 Miles has been expended in erecting a handsome depot, 
Population attractive parks and playgrounds and home for 
700 the railway employees. No better farming land 

can be found anywhere than in the vicinity of 
Englehart. It is also a divisional point on the T. & N. O. Rail- 
way. Three churches, public school and bank, electric light. 

Charlton Just beyond Englehart a branch of the T. & N. O. 
148.2 Miles Railway runs out to Charlton, a progressive town, 
Population beautifully placed at the foot of Long Lake and 
410 in the midst of excellent farming land. Public 

Buildings, Orange Hall, Victoria Hall, Agricul- 
tural Fair building, three churches, three schools. There are also 
eight public schools in the vicinity. 

Industries. — Beaver Board Timber Company, Rossing mill' 
three lumber mills, Northern Ontario Light & Power Company 
power distributing plant (Distributing power to Englehart and 
Kirkland Lake). 

Game. — Moose, deer, partridge, pike, pickerel, whitefish and 
bass. 

Chamberlain, Wawbewawa and Krugerdorf, small villages 
lying just north of Englehart, have country schools and churches, 
post offices, telephone offices, well timbered lots and good farming 
lands. Game and fish in fair quantities in the vicinity of each. 



Boston Creek The Miller Independence Mines is the leading 
154.2 Miles mining operation, the property being worked to 
Population a depth of five hundred feet. Over a year ago 
75 Calaverite was discovered (tellurite of gold) 

in spectacular quantities at a point near the 
surface in an exploration shaft. The work at a depth of five 
hundred feet is for the purpose of opening up the downward 
continuation of this rich body. While the ore throughout the 
district is valuable chiefly for the gold content, yet, almost with- 
out exception it contains silver in quantities that offer promise of 
this metal being found to be a by-product of more or less value. 

Dane The jumping off place for the Larder Lake Mining 

160.7 Miles camp. In this district the following mines are 
Population located: — The Goldfield Mining Company, em- 

75 ploying 200 men: The Argonauts, Crown Reserve 

and Coniagas. The J. R. Booth Lumber Co. are 
operating in this District. Larder Lake with a shore line of 
about one hundred and fifty miles is rich in trout, pickerel, white- 
fish, perch and pike. 

Swastika At Swastika, industry again turns to mining 

165.8 Miles From here the Ontario Government has con- 
Population structed a macadam road some six miles in length 

3,000 which passes through the Kirkland Lake gold area. 

(Including Principal mines in this section are the Lake Shore, 
Kirkland Kirkland Lake, Wright-Hargreaves, Teck Hughes 
Lake.) and Tough Oakes. The Mines are but newly 

opened up and production is on the increase. As 
yet only a very small part of the prospective area has been 
developed and the field presents attractions for mine exploration 
and development work perhaps not surpassed by any other field 
in the world. 

Sesekinika At Sesikinika we catch a glimpse of Lake Sese- 
171.1 Miles kinika, a dream of beauty, reminding one of 
Temagami on a smaller scale. Having passed 
Sesekinika Station, we cross the height of land — the ridge pole 
of Canada. 

Bourkes About eighty farms are located in this section 
184. Miles There is one school house. The Murray Mogrigge 
Population and the Bourkes Mining Company, are located 
130 in the vicinity. 

Ramore Good agricultural District, two schools, two 
196.0 Miles lumber mills. Good fishing and moose hunting 
Population within six miles of Ramore Station. Road now 
Surround- being constructed to Munroe Township and 
ing Lightning River District When completed, this 

Territory will make distance seven miles shorter via Ramore 
600 than the present route used from Matheson. 

Preparations are being made for the erection of a 
creamery at Ramore. 



20 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 




I . & 2. Northern Ontario Farm Scenes 
3. & 4 July Wheat Cutting 

5. Sesekinika Lake 



Matheson, Matheson has a population of 315, has three 

206.2 Miles churches, one three-roomed brick public school, 

Population two sawmills, one brick yard, one crearnery, 

315 cement sidewalks and waterworks. 

The land for miles around is of the very best for 
farming purposes and what is not already under cultivation 
would be very easily cleaned, having been burned over in 1916. 
The fall wheat on a seventy acre field yielded twenty-five bushels 
per acre. Potatoes yielded two hundred bags per acre. All 
other vegetables can be grown in abundance. 

The Croesus Gold Mine, Hattie Gold Mine and Cartwright 
Goldfields Mines are situated some ten or twleve miles north 
east of Matheson. The latter two will soon be in the producing 
class. 

The town of Matheson, therefore, is not only situated in the 
centre of a good agricultural district, but it is also a distributing 
point for a mineral area of considerable promise. 

Some twenty miles south in Watabeag Lake, lake trout are 
to be found in great numbers, varying in weight from five to 
twenty-five pounds. In this same region partridge and moose 
are plentiful. 

Monteith For the purpose of assisting settlers in the selection 
210.1 Miles of crops best suited to the agricultural districts of 
Population this part of Northern Ontario, including the Tem- 
300 iskaming and Cochrane clay-belt, the Ontario 

Government has established an Experimental 
Farm at Monteith. 

Here also is located the Northern Academy, which was estab- 
lished for the purpose of meeting, in an unique way, the needs 
of the North. It might be rightly termed an "Opportunity 
School" seeing that it is intended to supply educational facilities 
for those who, on account of physical, financial, or other condition 
are denied them. It is, therefore, both an Elementary and High 
School admitting pupils over ten years of age from rural sections 
who from physical obstacles, distance, or the scattered nature of 
settlements cannot be readily provided with schools, and also ad- 
mitting pupils of High School Status who have just passed the 
Entrance or have attained a one or two year's standing in High 
School work in some small fifth class or Continuation School. It 
undertakes, therefore, to finish their education under favorable 
conditions both as to tuition and living expenses. These are 
placed at the lowest possible amount. In case parents are un- 
able to meet even the nominal sum charged, special provisions 
are made whereby the pupil may not suffer from this disability. 

The institution is designed on lines which will provide a first- 
class home with all its safeguards and comforts as well as a fully- 
equipped and well-manned school. While the bias is naturally 
towards Agriculture, for which it is specially equipped, it has also 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 



21 



Alexo Fielding 

Mcintosh 

Springs 



Manual Training, Home Science and Physical Science and Chem 
istry Departments. The students themselves are expected to assist 
in the supply of field products for use in the school. In this way, 
while ministering to their practical training it also helps to make 
the school self-sustaining. It is being taken advantage of in a very 
liberal way, so much so that accommodation was long ago over- 
taxed, and the coming summer will likely see it enlarged and im- 
proved to meet the growing needs of the North. 

This is excellent farming country. Lumber and pulpwood is 
shipped from this point to a considerable extent. 

Porquis Jet. Porquis Jet. is the junction point for the 
225.7 Miles Porcupine Gold Camp. A Branch Line also 

Population 200 of seven miles in length runs from this point 
to Iroquis Falls. The surrounding country 
is well settled and a large quantity of pulp- 
wood is shipped. Good fishing and hunting 
in the vicinity. Public school and two 
Connaught churches, general stores. 

10. Miles A pulp mill under construction at this point 

Porcupine ' s we ^ situated, rough wood being im- 

Branch mediately available in unlimited quant- 

Population 500 'ties. In the vinicity is the Porcupine Pen- 
insular Gold Mines. 
Keyson Hoyle Good f ishing _ trout pickerel, pike. Excellent 
Three Nations duck and goose hunting on Frederickhouse 
Porcupine Lake in the fall. Good moose hunting in 

the vicinity. 

South Porcupine At South Porcupine is located the Dome 
26.6 Miles Mines, employing 530 men, the Beaumont 

(Porcupine Mines, Davidson Gold Mines, Paymaster 

Branch) Mines, and the March Gold Mines, lumber 

Population 1,200 mill, good business houses, hotels, four 
churches. Here also are located the Crown 
Timber Office, Mining Recorder's Office and Dominion Customs. 

Schumacher At Schumacher is located the famous 

31.6 Miles Mclntyre Porcupine Gold Mines, one of 

(Porcupine the largest producers in the Porcupine camp. 

Branch) It has many good stores, bank, public school 

Population, 1600 and two churches. 

Timmins The Gold Mining situation in the Porcupine 
33.1 Miles Camp has shown marked progress during 
(Porcupine 1921, not only in the increase of gold pro- 
Branch) duction but also in the enlargement of scope 
Population 8,000 in developing new properties. 

The three large producing mines here, Hollinger, Dome and 
Mclntyre, are, at this writing, shipping bullion at the rate of 
about $1,500,000 a month. This shows an increase of about 
half a million a month over the production of a year ago. 



The Hollinger Consolidated Gold Mines Limited, are crush- 
ing on an average between 3,800 and 3,900 tons daily. The 
Company contemplate building a new mill addition, which will 
then give this mine an average crushing capacity of possibly 
6,000 tons of ore daily. The sinking of a new big central shaft is 
being planned which will be continued to a depth of over 3.000 
feet. Ore reserves were officiallly estimated at $40,000,000 and 
there is every reason to believe that the same have been main- 
tained during the last year with the possibility of an increase. 
The Hollinger has approximately 2,100 men on its payroll at the 
present time and if the company carries out its present plans, it 
is reasonable to believe that the number of employees will in- 
crease to from 3,000 to 3,500 men. In order to provide accommo- 
dation for their workmen 1 50 houses were built by the Hollinger 
just west of the Town of Timmins. which it is understood will be 
incorporated into the town of Timmins as soon as a few details 
are completed. One of the outstanding features of this Com- 
pany during the year 1921 was the application to the Provincial 
Government for the right to develop and erect a new 35,000 H.P. 
Hydro-Electric plant at Kettle Falls on the Abitibi River, which 
demonstrates the great belief the directors have in the future of 
this great gold mine. 

Dome Mines during the present year have developed from 
what might be termed a "low grade" to a "high grade" mine. 
On the 7th and 10th levels the Dome have developed and opened 
up some of the highest grade ore ever encountered in this camp. 
Underground work generally has been very encouraging, and the 
Company have been pushing a very big development program. 
This mine is producing approximately $250,000 monthly. The 
Dome about a year ago exercised their option on the Dome Ex- 
tension Mines, which consisted of two hundred acres adjoining 
on the northeast. The absorption of Dome Extension gives 
Dome an acreage of 440, all of which is regarded as having very 
big possibilities. 

Mclntyre Porcupine Mines are producing approximately 
$25,000.00 every twenty-eight days. The management recently 
announced their intention of adding another 250 ton unit to their 
plant, which will give them a total milling capacity of 850 tons 
daily. Development work on the property has been satisfactory 
during 192 1 , and several of the Hollinger big ore bodies have been 
located on the Mclntyre at depth. This company's shaft is 
the deepest of any mine in the Porcupine Camp, having reached 
a depth of 1 ,800 feet. Mclntyre's future is regarded as having 
big possibilities of making the second largest mine in Northern 
Ontario. 

Developments on new properties and properties which have 
been closed down for the past five years show a marked im- 
provement. 

Operations are now being conducted over an area of fifty 
miles from the Union Mining Corporation in Whitesides Township 
to the Porcupine Peninsular Company in Night Hawk Lake. 




I. Silver Bullion. Cobalt 



2. T. & N. O. Ry. Station, Cochrane 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 



23 



The Union Mining Corporation have spent considerable 
money on their property in Whitesides Township in cutting new 
roads to the property, erection of plant and bunkhouses and other 
necessary buildings. The Company's development work con- 
sists of a shaft down to the 300 foot level with lateral work on 
the 150 and 300 foot levels. Results are reported as being en- 
couraging. The Company is being financed by Chicago interests. 

In the Night Hawk Section the Porcupine Peninsular Mining 
Company has done several thousand feet of diamond drilling 
and sunk a shaft to a depth of about 175 feet. It is under- 
stood that the Company is meeting with very good results. 

In Deloro Township good work has been done during the 
present year. The Porcupine Paymaster Mines have spent 
considerable money in completing their plant and equipment, 
and they are now in position to continue their development 
work to a depth of 1,000 feet. 

On the 200 foot level (The Company has a shaft down to a 
depth of 225 feet) a large body of ore 98 feet in width has been 
developed, which shows an excellent grade of commercial ore. 

The March Gold Mines, a little to the north of the Pay- 
master, is sinking a shaft upon a very rich vain. The Company 
has put in a very nice plant, small in size but sufficient to carry 
development work to the 500 foot level. 

The Davidson Gold Mines resumed operations this summer. 
The Mine is developed to the 600 foot level. Good ore has been 
found on the 300 and 500. A big diamond drilling campaign is 
now under way and good results are reported. This Company 
is regarded as having a big future. 

Beaumont Gold Mines, a little to the north of the Davidson 
Gold has been doing considerable development work during the 
year. A big diamond drilling program was carried out and a 
shaft is now being sunk to open up the ore indicated by such 
diamond drilling at depth. 

A general review of the camp would indicate more new de- 
velopments during this year than at any time since 1915. More 
prospecting has been done and more actual mining on the cut- 
lying properties. 

Miscellaneous Information — Three Public schools, four 
churches. Town Hall, two Hospitals, five entertainment Halls, 
five Sawmills, $100,000 hotel contemplated, splendid business 
houses. Mattagami River District offers good moose hunting, 
also fishing. Trout, pickerel and whitefish plentiful. A number 
of farms are opening up in this territory. 

Iroquois Falls Iroquois Falls has the largest pulp and paper 
7 Miles from mill on the Continent, two of its paper machines 
Porquis Jet. being the largest newsprint machines in the 
Population world. The Abitibi Power & Paper Company, 
3,250 Limited was organized early in 1913 and im- 

mediately began clearing a site for mill and town in the virgin 
forest. All material had to be brought by scow from Matheson 



down the Black River, as there was then no spur from Porquis 
Jet. The first train over the spur arrived in September 1913, 
with the roof steel for the mill. 

The groundwood mill was far enough advanced by August 
1914 that lapped pulp was shipped. The sulphite mill and the 
paper mill were then commenced. On June 16th, 1915, the first 
machine turned out newsprint paper. In 1915 the mill turned 
out 156 tons of paper a day, and this output was gradually in- 
creased till 1920 when the daily output was 250 tons. In 1921 
construction of an addition to the mill was completed, making 
the paper capacity of the mill 500 tons daily. 

In addition to the paper the mill has a capacity of 175 tons 
of ground wood pulp and 75 tons of sulphite pulp, over and above 
the mill requirements, which makes the shipping capacity of the 
mill 750 tons of commercial product daily. 

The power is drawn partly from Iroquois Falls and partly from 
Twin Falls. Iroquois Falls provides 24,000 horse power, 18.000 
of which is used direct, and the remainder for driving electrical 
generators. The Twin Falls power house has a capacity of 
24,000 horse power, which can be increased to 30,000. The 
current from Twin Falls is brought over a transmission line four 
miles in length. 

Iroquois Falls is the show town of the north country from 
the point of view of beauty. The houses are all detached or 
semi-detached. Each house has its flower garden, lawn, veget- 
able garden, its electric light, hot and cold water, furnace, bath 
room; in fact every city convenience except gas for summer 
cooking. The parks and squares are a mass of flowers and 
flowering shrubs. Good sidewalks and paved streets add to the 
appearance, and make it a very clean town. 

It is a great town for sports — baseball, football, tennis and 
golf being active during the summer, and hockey is played in 
winter in as good a rink as there is north of Toronto. 

It contains three churches, The United Church (Presbyter- 
ian and Methodist) Anglican and Roman Catholic, two schools, 
public school with a staff of seven teachers, and a seperate school, 
night class during the winter along industrial lines, and tech- 
nical classes in the mill for employees to perfect themselves in 
their knowledge of the pulp and paper industry. 
Cochrane On the northern slope of the watershed be- 

253.6 Miles tween the Great Lakes and Hudson's Bay, with 
Population the vast river systems flowing northward till 
2,800 they pour their united waters into James Bay, 

offering all along their courses free scope for 
water power development, and running through a country en- 
ormously rich in potential wealth of forest and mineral resources, 
lies the embryo city of Cochrane at the junction of the Canadian 
National Railways with the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario 
Railway, in the very midst of the famous northern claybelt, one 
of the greatest expanses of fertile territory to be found anywhere 
in the world. 



24 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 



At the present time the population is only 2,800 but the pro- 
gressive spirit prevailing and the natural advantages of the 
position of the town give assurance of a rapid expansion in the 
near future. Two wholesale warehouses, twenty-seven retail 
stores, three shops three banks, a newspaper and print shop, 
several insurance and law offices, three physicians, a dentist and 
the headquarters of several pulp and lumber concerns operating 
in the surrounding district constitute the commercial interests 
which are closely watched and fostered by a live and aggressive 
Board of Trade. Cochrane also is port of entry for Customs, and 
has been chosen by the Provincial Government as the future 
Judicial Seat of the District of Cochrane, which extends from 
Swastika in the south to Grant in the west. The town is a 
divisional point on the Canadian National Railways and the 
terminus of the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway, 
but a bill has passed the Ontario Legislature to extend the latter 
to James Bay — Construction of the first seventy miles is to be 
completed by the close of 1923. Both railways have round- 
houses and machine shops in Cochrane. A general hospital, both 
public and separate schools, four churches and a theatre look 
after the physical, moral and social welfare of the citizens. 

The extension of the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario 
Railway from Cochrane to Tidewater on James Bay has become 
an assured fact. The position of the town on one of the great 
main arteries, the Canadian National Railways, running from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans, and on the only existing main 
artery from the Great Lakes to Tidewater on Hudson Bay, 570 
miles from Quebec and Montreal, 480 miles from Toronto, and 
777 miles from Winnipeg, therefore far enough removed from 
other large urban centres, with the development of the vast 
hinterland of the North at her door, gives to Cochrane the firm 
assurance of a bright future, with the ultimate place of the new 
metropolis of the north. 

Sufficient development has taken place along the Temiskam- 
ing and Northern Ontario Railway and the Canadian National 
Railways to justify the expectation of making the Great Northern 
clay belt one of the richest farming countries in the world. The 
Claybelt is traversed by the Canadian National Railways for its 
entire length of 400 miles and extends from 50 to 250 miles north 
and south of the track, the principal extension being in the north, 
the southern boundary only being from 25 to 75 miles south of the 
railway. 

The soil a rich clay loam, is probably better than the level, 
clay stretches of fine farming land in Manitoba. Sandy and 
gravel edges appear in various places, but from the point of view 
of the general needs of the settler, these have their own special 
advantages in affording material for concrete construction and 
road improvement. It is safe to say from 65 to 75 per cent, of the 
claybelt is good farm land and that this percentage will be con- 
siderably increased by comprehensive drainage, which the rivers 
will aid in making easy. 




I. Northern Ontario Potatoes 

2. A Corn Field Near Cochrane 



TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 



25 



The time, however, has passed when agricultural resources of 
the great northern claybelt were a matter of conjecture only. 
The settlements along the Canadian National Railways from 
Cochrane west 1 30 miles as far as Hearst and from Cochrane east 
130 miles as far as Amos furnish incontrovertible evidence of 
successful farming in this northern latitude. There seems hardly 
any limit to the diversity of husbandry capable of development 
in the claybelt to supply all things necessary for food. 

It has been estimated that, apart from the James Bay slope, 
there are about 300 million cords of spruce along the line of 
Railways which, used as pulpwood is equal to the European 
variety. Many valuable water powers exist both north and 
south of the Railway track, giving capital a splendid opportunity 
for investment in pulp and paper mills. The water powers can 
be leased when required to supply power for industries. The 
terms, however, will provide for the supplying of power by the 
lessees to parties requiring it at rates and on terms to be fixed by 
the Department of Lands and Forests. 

Territory to be used by T. & N. O. Railway 
Extension 

NATURAL RESOURCES 
Timber. — The general character of the timber on the claybelt, 
north of the Transcontinental Railway is very similar to that 
with which we are familiar south of Cochrane. There are large 
amounts of spruce, balsam, jack pine, poplar and birch. Un- 
fortunately, as elsewhere, fire has already destroyed large areas 
of valuable timber. The spruce is the most valuable standing 
timber, and is found in sufficient quantities to supply several 
large pulp mills. 

Minerals. — As the district has been relatively inaccessible, very 
little prospecting has been done, and there are no mineral de- 
posits of proven value The exposures of Archean rocks all merit 
careful prospecting. The valuable deposits in other Northern 
Ontario mining camps occur in similar formation, and mining 
geologists consider that this is good prospecting ground. The 
exposures of Archean rock are larger and more numerous than 
previously supposed, and it is anticipated that there will be con- 
siderable prospecting the coming season. 

Oil. — Devonian rocks, similar to those in which oil occurs in 
Southwestern Ontario, underly large areas of the coastal plain. 
No actual discoveries of petroleum are known, but it is considered 
that the conditions are favorable. 

Peat. — There are large areas of peat, particularly in the coastal 
plain, that will, no doubt, be a factor in the domestic fuel supply 
for the future population of the district. 

Gypsum. — Large deposits of gypsum have been discovered. 
Water Powers. — There is a great wealth of water power on the 
tributaries of the Moose River. Surveys have been made of the 
more important water powers on the Abitibi and the Mattagami, 
particulars of which are given in an accompanying statement. A 



total of approximately half a million horsepower can be developed 
on these rivers. Only a small fraction of this will be required for 
the operation of pulp and paper mills. The balance will be avail- 
able for electro-metallurgical industries, and for the future 
electric operation of the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario 
Railway and Canadian National Railways, making these railways 
independent of foreign coal for motive power. 

Fisheries. — Further investigations must be made before the 
economic value of the fisheries in Hudson's Bay can be known. 
Persons with long experience on the bay, state that there is an 
abundance of fish of great value. 

Agriculture. — For fifty to sixty miles north of Cochrane, the 
clay land is generally well drained and is very similar to that 
recently brought under cultivation at Matheson, Monteith and 
Cochrane. 

At all of the trading posts on James Bay, as at New Post near 
the southern limit of the coastal plain, a great variety of vege- 
tables and farm crops have been successfully grown for many 
years. 

Harbours and Navigation. — The investigations that have been 
made by the T. & N. O. Railway, have determined that the 
estuary of the Moose River is the best natural harbour on the 
Ontario coast of James Bay, and that it is possible, to develop it 
into a harbour adequate for all traffic that may reasonably be 
anticipated. 

The traffic to be served by such a harbour will be largely 
coasting traffic in the bay. Navigation on Hudson's Bay is possible 
from the first of June to about the middle of November, although 
Hudson's Straits are not open until about the middle of July. 
The areas tributary to Hudson's Bay are so vast that if transporta- 
tion is afforded, there will, without doubt, be some development 
on its long shore line. 

THE BELCHER ISLANDS— HUDSON'S BAY. 

According to reports of discoveries, which are substantiated 
by surveyors, the deposits of iron ore are of enormous extent, 
running into hundreds of millions of tons and stated as being the 
most important discovery of iron ore in the world to date. 

This property is owned by a Company known as the Belcher 
Islands Iron Mines Limited, and they are now proposing to 
arrange for the large capital that will be required to develop the 
ore bodies on a commercial scale, with proposed electric smelters 
at Moose Factory to be operated by water power in that vicinity. 

Estimate of Water Power on the Tributaries of the Moose 
River, North of the National Transcontinental Railway 



Abitibi River 292.600 H P. 

Mattagami River 165.060 H P. 

ICapuskasing River 10.690 H.P. 

Ground Hog River 6.800 H.P 

Opazatika River (Approx. Est.) 20.000 H.P. 

Missinabi River 100.000 H.P. 



Total „ 595.150 H.P . 



French River (No data available). 



HEAD OFFICE. TEMISKAMING AND NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 
NORTH BAY. ONTARIO